3D printing overview

1, 3D printing technology basic concepts and principles

1.1 Basic concepts of 3D printing technology

3D printing is based on digital model files. The technique of constructing an object by layer-by-layer printing using a bondable material such as powdered metal or plastic. In the past, it was often used in the manufacture of molds in the fields of mold manufacturing and industrial design, and is now being used for the direct manufacture of some products.

3D printing overview

1.2 Principles of 3D Printing Technology

 3D printing overview

2, 3D printing technology mainstream molding method

2.1 3D printing method

3D Printing Overview

2.1.1 FDM (Hot Melting) Stacking and curing method)

3D printing overview

Principle: Using an energy source (such as a laser) and using photo-resisting properties of the photosensitive resin, each profile layer is stacked and bonded together to form the desired finished product. The cooperation of the upper and lower surfaces of the table with the energy source is controlled by a computer. The thickness of the section of this layer, depending on the precision requirements, is about 0.05-0.10mm.

2.1.2 SLA (stereoscopic curing method)

3D printing overview

Principle: Focusing the surface of the photocurable material with a laser of a specific wavelength and intensity, from point to line, from line to The surface sequence is solidified to complete a level of drawing work, and then the lifting table moves the height of one layer in the vertical direction and then solidifies the other layer. Such layer stacking constitutes a three-dimensional entity.

2.1.3 SLS (selective laser sintering)

3D printing overview

Principle: Partially melt the powder material with a laser, the powder particles retain their solid phase morphology, and solidify and solidify through subsequent liquid phase Phase particle rearrangement bonding achieves powder densification. When processing, the powder is first preheated to a temperature slightly lower than its melting point, and then the powder coating car is used to flatten the powder. The laser beam is selectively sintered according to the layered cross-section information under computer control, and the layer is completed before proceeding to the next stage. The layer is sintered, and after the entire sintering, the excess powder is removed, and a sintered part is obtained.

2.1.4 3D inkjet printing (3DP)

3D printing overview

Principle: The powder is applied to the printing platform and the colored glue is transferred to the print head by pressure. Storage, the next printing process is very similar to 2D inkjet printing. First, the system will mix the colored glue according to the color of the 3D model and selectively spray it on the powder plane. When the powder meets the glue, it will bond to the solid. After the bonding of one layer is completed, the printing platform is lowered, the powder roller rolls the powder again, and then the bonding of the new layer is started, and the layer printing is repeated until the entire model is bonded. After the printing is completed, the recycling is not completed. The bonded powder, the powder on the surface of the model is blown off, and the model is again immersed in clear glue, at which time the model has a certain strength.

3D printing overview

2.1.5 SLM (Selective Laser Melting)

3D printing overview

SLM is a new rapid prototyping technology developed on the basis of SLS. The metal powder is melted layer by layer by a laser beam to directly form a metal part that is nearly completely dense. The main difference between SLM and SLS is that SLS does not completely melt the metal powder, and SLM completely melts the metal powder to form.

3D printing overview

2.1.6 EBM (Electron Beam Melting)

3D printing overview

Selectively melt the metal powder layer or wire with a high-energy high-speed electron beam, melt-form, and stack up until the entire solid metal is formed Components.

The electron beam melting (EBM) process is similar to SLM, the only difference being the energy source that melts the powder layer, where an electron beam is used instead of the laser.

2.1.7 DMLS (Direct Metal Laser Sintering)

3D printing overview

DMLS is a high-energy laser beam that directly sinters thin layers of metal powder based on three-dimensional model data to form dense solid parts. The principle of DMLS is basically the same as that of SLS. The main difference lies in the nature of the powder. The resulting structural member has a density of more than 99%, which is close to the forged material body.

2.1.8 LENS (laser engineering net forming)

3D printing overview

LENS is a metal 3D printing technology developed on the basis of laser cladding technology combined with selective laser sintering technology. A high-power laser beam is used to form a molten pool on the metal substrate according to a predetermined path, and the metal powder is sprayed from the nozzle into the molten pool, rapidly solidified and deposited, and stacked layer by layer until the part is formed.

2.2 3D printed materials

material morphology

Liquid

solid powder

solid sheet

solid state Wire

nonmetal>

metal

Specific materials

Photocuring resin

wax powder

Nylon powder

coated ceramic powder

polymer material powder

steel powder

Film-coated steel powder

coated paper

coated plastic

coated ceramic foil

Membrane metal foil

wax filament

ABS silk

2.3 Features and Benefits of 3D Printing Technology

3D Printing Overview

Advantages of 3D printing technology

3D printing overview

2.4 3D Print key technology

3D printing overview

3, 3D printing technology application

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3D printing overview

3D printing overview

3D printing overview

3D printing overview

3D printing overview

4, 3D printing technology prospects and challenges

4.1 3D printing technology Prospects

3D printing overview

4.2 3D printing technology challenges and bottlenecks

3D printing overview