According to Stepford's research, injuries and injuries of DNA regions are genetic hotspots for significant evolutionary changes. Conclusions can lead to a new understanding of human evolution.
Replication of DNA disorders in the replication may allow the spine to successfully adapt to the evolution of environmental conditions, according to research conducted by Stanford University School of Medicine researchers.
The study shows that some critical evolutionary changes are likely to occur in the breach of flow and boundaries through DNA extent loss rather than the slow accumulation and supplementation of many small mutations.
Researchers, who offered a small fish study, believe that such "fragile" DNA regions create genetic hotspots, which are faster and more evident than neighboring sequences. The resulting changes facilitate the development of an organizational vault in the race of evolutionary weapons.
Although such results have been described in bacteria, this is one of the first research that shows that the same process occurs in the vertebrates to create dramatic changes in the body structure. It also addresses the long-term mystical evolutionary biology.
"There is plenty of evidence that the same gene for the same population or species is quite responsible for similar evolutionary changes," says David Kingsl, professor of biology professor. "It is not clear what is happening, this research describes the biochemical level, the level of atoms and the level of consistency in the DNA, how many types of mutations are formed, which promotes complex skeletal features and still in wild fish species. How DNA weakness can sometimes contribute to the advantageous features, Than the natural populations of diseases and may give us significant evolution in the evolution of human evolution.
The researcher at Howard HUSES Medical Institute, Kinshi, is the head of research published on January 4 Science. Master's thesis is a leading author of the work.
Great changes, great effects
Many mutations mean a change in DNA in only one nucleotide or letter. This "point" grants some of the mutations to the evolutionary advantage. Instead, significant changes often require some accumulation of such mutations. In contrast, the sudden, major changes in the genome may have a great effect of changing body structure through skeletal changes or affecting metabolism or brain function, for example. Often, these changes are harmful and the chances of survival of animals decrease. However, sometimes the changes are profitable.
When the ice age is over, about 10,000 years ago, migrating ocean pockets blocked the newly formed lakes and streams in the coastal zone and then independently acquainted with their new local circumstances. As a result, most of these people showed significant differences in the body structure. For example, marine skeletons linked with a large variety of pelvis structure. In contrast, dozens of freshwater residents have lost their absence, supposedly reduces the need for calcium and the chances of getting hungry insects.
Previous studies at Kingsley Laboratory revealed losses in a specific DNA regulating region, so called Pel Enhancer, as a repeat cause of missing back firms in many residents of freshwater fish. Pel Enhancer expresses the protein that is necessary for the development of eye layers. In this study, Xie used a marine lock to DNA to investigate the Pel region, who lost his freshman brothers to learn why the region is particularly sensitive to loss.
Xie concluded that the DNA sequence in the Pel region is unusual in several ways. Unlike the different neighboring regions, which are a normal, more stable peak associated with most of the DNA, the pearl growth increases in the alternate DNA structure that predicts that it is highly flexible and unstable at the DNA replication. The sequence also contains a repeated pair of nucleotide pairing, as well as the genetic type of weakness. Previous surveys in bacteria, mice and people have been noted that this repetition is often associated with DNA stretching wells.
More frequent chromosomes break
When Xie proved the stability of the lost Pel region in an artificial yeast in chromosomes, he found that the chromosome broke 25 to 50 times more frequently than the typical DNA sequences. When Xie and his staff were tested similar to DNA segments of mammalian cells, they noted that the key dinucleotide repeated sequence often caused the removal of DNA more than 100 nucleotides long.
The chromosomes revealed by Xie have increased the speed of destruction, which means that this damage causes the removal of DNA parts, making it an important factor that allows the distortion of the last skeleton's skeleton, the young stickclip population. The elevated mutation indicators may have a similar role when the beneficial properties arise in other organisms, scientists believe.
"Many spells, including early humans, are the size of small size and a relatively long generation of time," said Kingston, who is Rudy J. Caffeine Donahu Muncher professor at the School of Medicine "There are not many generations which will enable new, potentially beneficial properties to develop, and in these conditions it may be important to produce mutations at high temperatures and have a sharp effect."
When researchers analyzed people in adaptive changes in humans, it was found that roughly half was mutations due to the elevated rate compared to the DNA letter changes.
"What we learn is that the" happy arrival "or relative velocity that generates potentially favorable mutations is sometimes as important as" fittest survival. "" The mutation process has a significant impact on the outcome and the mutation arrives in its own It affects the fitness of the organism to contain significant changes in the euphoria confernces process ".
In the expression of genes, people can change that the researchers said
Catherine t. Jay and others. DNA weakness in pellemic evolution During the pelvic reduction of fish, Science (2019). DOI: 10.1126 / science.aan1425