As climate change causes the rise of ocean temperatures, coral reefs around the world suffer from massive bleeding events and die. For many, this is their first acquaintance with extreme heat. However, for some of the Central Pacific Ocean, the heating caused by El Niño is a way of life. It is unclear how these reefs are repeated by repeated episodes of extreme heat. A new study by Woods Hall Ocean Institute (WHOI) has revealed the history of leakage from El Nino's epicenter and shows how some grapes have returned to extreme conditions. The study was published in the journal No 8, 2018 Biology of communications.
"These huge marine fluids, which are aggravated by global warming, have an atmospheric bombardment in terms of impact on Korean reefs – they have killed millions of corals in large areas of the ocean," says WHOI scientist Ana Cohen, who was chief investigator. "We've seen this game globally and irritated during the last 30-40 years and the events will become more and more stricter."
When water temperatures change slightly, symbiotic algae living in live coral cells, they begin to create toxic substances and start marijuana. Algae usually provide crown food and energy, as well as their bright colors. Without them, corals appear "bleached" white, then hunger and die.
During their study, the Cohen team traveled to the island of Savage, a small, unprotected corridor of the island of Rifi 1,400 miles away on the southern coast of Hawaii, where Korea's extreme climate was influenced. Because Jvari is part of the shore and part of the maritime protected area, it is known for its rich coral reefs – but its location from the middle of the summer, it also experiences more extreme heat waves than the extreme heat waves than the coral reefs elsewhere.
"The fact that it is located on the equator in central Pacific, is the epicenter of the e-enino dynamics." Says NOAA researcher Hannah Barkley, who was a graduate and later postdoctoral fellow at Cohen Labor during training, and is a leading newspaper author. "This is an unimaginable change and temperatures."
Because there is no universally recognized spectrum that is bleeding on the part of the Jovari by 2015, Cohen and Barclay find themselves on the massive old coral that lived for more than 100 years. They have received basic samples of corals, creating a kind of skeletal biopsy that records the history of the reef. After scanning the computer through a computer scanner, many of the bleeding in the physical structure of the reef was first discovered. The long cores have been shown to be bleaching since 1912.
"We found that when reef bleaches, these large old corals were formed down to" stress groups "or a dense layer of calcium carbonate, bonelike material that would make up the structure of the corals.The bands will show clearly the CT scan and correspond to the historic heat waves," says Cohen . The events of irritating the past of the crucifixion are revealed in this grave – they can tell us what is happening, even though we were not to see them. "
The jovar is an average temperature of every ninety-seven years, for decades and even centuries. The team found that with each heat wave, the reflex suffered strong discoloration, but it seems that every time it was heard quite quickly.
According to their samples, the group believes that one of the main reasons for reef recovery is the surrounding speakers. The topography of the ocean floor, along the surface of the trading wind, is deep, cold and rich in rich water. It's a thick mass of beet fishes and other water-water, which in turn triggers dirty algae that corals. In this process, they will leave room for new, young coral polyps to finally settle.
"These reefs are stable, which have been bleached and gained many times," said Dan Tornhill, Director of the Ocean Science Scientist Department of the National Science Foundation, which funded research. "But the 2015-2016 irritation event was particularly hard, so the island gives us new ideas about how the world's most painful crowns are suffering from severe irritation."
Understanding how coral reefs like jarvis can recover after wider bleaching will be important to understand how other reef ecosystems can grow back in the future, says Barkley.
But 2015 Super El Nino has led Jarvis to become more than ever before and bleaching that ensued was the worst record. 95% of the island's corals have died.
"The big question for us is whether the reef could bounce back all this time," says Barkley. "Like George, who have been in the past, have leverage, beyond which they will not be restored, what will happen over the next few years, really helps us to understand irritation."
Nevertheless, he is optimistic. "After the irritation of 2015, we can easily look at the jar, but feel depressed in history, but according to history derived from our main samples, we hope that the army is just one example: even though we see signs of accelerated irritation and deaths across the globe we have a climate change Influence on corals, some ips may have severe stress events to keep. "
"There are initial signs of restoration," says Cohen. "Now we'll wait and see and learn."
He also collaborated with Catherine R. Pietro and P. Lomman, WHOI, Coen's Laboratory graduates Nathaniel R. Mollicas, Hani E. Rivera, Thomas M. Descarlo, Elizabeth J. Drunkard and Alice Elepert MIT-WHOI joint program in oceanography; Russell E. Brandard and Thomas A. Oliver NoAA Center for Fisheries Sciences of the Pacific Islands; Charles W. Young, Bernardo Vargas-Angel, and Kevin C. Lino NOAA and University of Hawaii Manoa; And Victoria H. Luu of the Princeton University. Research funding is provided by the National Science Foundation OCE 1537338, OCE 1605365 and OCE 1031971. A.L. Cohen and Robertson Foundation A. National Science Foundation Graduate Research Scholarships T.M DeCarlo and A.E. Alpert; And National Defense Science and Engineering Master Scholarships H.E. Rivera.