A new study shows that Asperglus Flavus, Which creates carcinogenic stimulants that suppress the contamination of the seeds and walnut, a multilegated partner in crime: the nail nail and fruit orchid targets. Scientists report Chemical Ecology Journal That in two harmful organisms against plant protection against pesticides.
"It turns out that the potato grown with mushrooms, mushrooms are increasingly growing with kaifil," said Professor of Illinois University and head of the Department Bernabau, who conducted research entomology graduate Daniel S. Bush and US Department of Agriculture Research entomologist Joel P. Sigile.
"Mushrooms are unbelievable with an opportunistic pathogen that infects all kinds of plants, as well as animals, including humans," Berenbaum said. "And very, very good talk."
Caterpillar, Amyelois transitellaThere is also opportunistic food. In contrast to the different insects, it will somewhat override the protection of host plants, including almonds, pistachios and figs. Capifillary removes its path and reduces the fruit and nut with its excretion and grandfather. It also opens the doors A. Flavus Infection. In contrast to many other insects, the solution of tasty membrane cortex may be metabolized by alotoxacin, which causes the immune system of this toxic fungal product.
Before the start of the new research researchers and producers notice mushrooms and caterpillars, but do not know whether the two are cooperating with one another and cooperate with each other.
In order to find out, the team saw experiments on how the laboratory adult membrane cherubs responded to the separation of specific plant defenses and pesticides or the absence of fungi. They gave birth to the death of Kefilir and over time in different conditions to pupate. The tests included typhoid fever, which was sensitive to pyrethroid pesticides and secondly, which was resistant.
The tests revealed that the caffeine was much faster in the presence of fungi, regardless of natural or man-made toxins. Larvae vulnerable plant defensive compound Xanthotoxin developed almost twice as fast as mushrooms were also. Larvae fed diet contains xanthotoxin or bergapten – other phytochemical in the same class as xanthotoxin – has also lived much more of the presence of mushrooms than when it comes to chemicals alone.
Dittas differ from pesticides – without their fungal partner. Pesticide-sensitive fibers had higher mortality in the presence of pesticides and fungi than pesticides. Pesticides Resistant caterpillars were unaffected by pesticides, whether mushrooms were.
When researchers brought pimples biphenthrin in the swimming pool until the caiples came to the place, however, deaths of deaths went down. This is supposed A. Flavus detoxifies bifenthrin, which helps caterpillar, researchers wrote.
"It is very likely that these knees have managed to colonize so many new cultures because its partner mushroom can destroy the chemical protection of wooden crops that it has to touch," said Berenbebum. "It's also a caterpillar extra edge because the mushroom breaks some pesticides that growers use to combat the caterpillar."
California Pistachio Research Board and the Almighty Council of California sponsored this research.
Materials provided University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign. Original written by Diana Yat. Note: Edit content for style and length.