Corals and their microbiomes evolved together, new research shows

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Corals and microbes they host together developed, a new study by Oregon State University shows.

Studies published today Nature Communications, Add a new view to the fight to save the Earth embattled coral reefs, the planet's largest and most important structures of biological origin.

It is funded by the National Science Foundation, which contains hundreds of samples of salclacticone coriander, also known as sand crowns, the first manifestation of which was 425 million years ago, becoming more than 1,500 species.

Many of them were the main builders of coral reefs, which are less than 1% of the ocean, but almost all marine species. Reefs also contribute to the regulation of sea carbon dioxide levels and the crucial hunt for scientists to use for new medicines.

"Many corals went on extinction during industrialization and many others are threatened with extinction," said research co-author and OSU microbiologist Rebecca Vega Thurber, who featured the 2018 Oregon State University's produced documentary "Save Atlantis." "If we look at the evolutionary model between the microbes and coral, which gives us the idea of ​​the microorganisms aimed at learning what they do, how to corral climate change and how to help harm the buffer against harmful bacteria. Helps or hurt their hosts. "

Modern corals are complex composition of dinoflagellates, fungi, bacteria and archaea that together make up the coral microbiome. Changes in microbiological composition are linked to coral health change.

"Presumably, family names are complex microbial topics, but we do not know much about how these coral-microbe symbioses or the main factors that affect the modern corals of microbial communities," said vega turber. "Corals of some species have distinct microbiomes, at the point where it occurred at some point in their evolutionary history, not 400 million years ago, but there are specific groups of microbes that show very strong evidence evolving their hosts more recently."

Vega Thurber and Ryan McMinds, Ph.D. The first co-author of his laboratory and co-author was part of international co-operation, which also includes Pane State University Monica Medina and former Oregon State Post-Doctorate Jesse Jeaniel, now an assistant professor at the Washington Bethel University.

The massive, computational research project involving 600 CORAL samples 21 reefs off the coast of Australia, which includes 17 degrees latitude.

"In many different scales, more like similar coral hosts, more similar to microbial communities are as the whole community and in particular microbes," McMinds said. "We have collected samples as many crowns, as in every sample we've seen corals & cloths, skeletons and mucus to see what microbes there."

To do this, the researchers sequenced the 16S rRNA gene. The gene is in every living organism, Macmins explains, but slightly different. He compared the "molecular bar code" to each organism.

Therefore, scientists may look like different corrosion microbial temples and determine the corolla and their microbiology ratio.

"We had strong support for corporate-microbiology philosophy, where coral microbiomic composition and wealth are reflected in the evolutionary history of the coral host," said Viga Turbar. "When modern re-built marine families have started to reach about 25 million and 65 years ago, the accompanying microbiological wealth changes and changes continue to accumulate events in the nearest future.

Coral diversity is very large to evaluate the different factors that maintain microphobia for each coral species, but these conclusions provide the general rules of microbium assemblies, which recognize the effect of microorganisms in the coral tree.

"Now we have a framework for analyzing the scalaric corpus microbial, which can reveal the evolutionary history of corals, the host properties and the local environment to interact with microbes," Viga Turbar said. "In the Coral world, there is a long hypothesis that microbes and coral co-evolving have developed, but there was not enough data to check that before."

The researchers were surprised by the fact that the microorganisms of the coronary calcium carbonate skeleton showed more microbiological riches compared to tissue and mucosa microorganisms. Also, skeleton microbes show a strong signal of long-term philosophy – a sample in which diversification of host organ groups is associated with different changes in their microbiology.

"We originally thought of hypocrisy to show all signs of hyperseesis and to support the results for the skeleton and tissue but not mucus," McMedd said. "In the mucous chemical composition of the mucous chemical substance and in the mucous microbial specificity specificity, the specificity of the hospitality was relatively recent."

He also pointed out that research finds a potential value in "some microorganisms in no one seemed important to look at."

"There are different varieties of microbes and not so much that the researchers thought it was interesting and we could reveal a few other microbial tasks that could affect coral health," McMedd said. "We do not know for sure that they are important, but evidence suggests that they are changing their home together, so probably something important, they are not a standard symphony, but they seem to be worth looking more closely."

Learn further:
A new study suggests corals to produce molecules that can help with the resistance to the disease

Მet Information:
F. Joseph Pollock and others, Coral-associated bacteria show philosymosis and cophylogeny, Nature Communications (2018). DOI: 10.1038 / s41467-018-07275-x

Journal Reference:
Nature Communications

Provided by:
Oregon State University