We all start with the unity of identical cells. By dividing and reproducing these cells, they are gradually evident in the identified identity, acquire the characteristics of muscle tissue, bone or nerves. The research by Rockefeller Science revealed a new knowledge about how this cellular identity was developed in the development process.
According to research, published eLifeCells retain the memory of the chemical signals. The researchers have shown that the embryos that can not create these memories, the cloning of the clones, do not realize their unique biological potential.
25 years ago Ali H. Brivanlou showed that protein activity leads to embryonic frog cells that cause specific tissue specifications. For decades the activist thought that the specialized cells from homogeneous clap would be transformed.
"The activity was to determine the molecular manual that is necessary and differentiated," says Brianwallo, a professor of Robert and Harriet Hyleburn. "Researchers have shown that determining the protein dose determines cellular fate for a very high dose, for example, will get the intestine and muscle and get a very low dose of nerve tissue."
Despite enough evidence of animal research, questions remain about how active guides develop in human cells. Working with Brivanlou and Eric D. Siggia, Viola Ward Brinning and Elbert Calhoun Briling Professor, graduate Ana Yoney was founded to investigate whether the protein causes the differentiation of the laboratory generated human embryos. From developed stem cells, these embryos form the behavior of human cells in the early stages of development.
The researchers were waiting for these synthetic embryos like the Brachidano frogs. However, after using these cells activists, they looked good.
"Anna put on embryos and we waited – waited and waited and nothing happened, it was shocking," says Brad.
Undeterred, Yoney is considered a possible explanation of its results. "I think it's good that we will not get an answer from the asset," he recalls. "What extra signals do we need differentiation?"
He finally passed through the WNT, the molecule is known for the development of motion cells. In the next experiment, he called cells before the active involvement; And, at this time, they are differentiated in normal mode.
"WNT's cells will react to a full range of reactions – just as we see frogs and other animals," says Braden. "But the cells that you did not see were totally unacceptable as if the asset was not there".
The researchers concluded that differentiation requires both WNT and activation signals. However, it is important that cells do not have two chemical substances simultaneously.
"We blocked WNT signaling during the activation treatment stage and found that the cells were still differentiated," says Yoney. "So we conclude that the cells actually remembered that they had previously believed me."
The researchers found this phenomenon "signal memory" because the WNT constantly changes the way the cells change. Earlier these studies did not identify evidence of embryonic memories, as Bivanaloo says, most developed biologists work in animal cells.
Cells in animal model systems have serious signals than people who have been manipulated, but the artificial embryos of the gene originated from stem cells that did not have such exposure – and that makes them full of signals, "he says." As a model, Sometimes they can lead you to miss things. "
The researchers expressed their hope to explore how and where monotonous memories are. Ian doubts that they are marked in the cells of the cells as modifying the epigen, which controls the cells to read their DNA. Additional studies in this field may have significant consequences for the development of human and other species.