“Father of Modern Chemistry” – Lavoisier

On August 26, 1743, Antoine Laurent Lavoisier was born in Paris. He died in his childhood and was raised by his aunt. The chemist Lavoisier originally learned the law. In 1763, Lavasi, who was only 20 years old, obtained a bachelor’s degree in law and obtained a lawyer’s certificate. But he was not interested in this, turned to research in the natural sciences, and studied chemistry. Since then, Lavoisier has been inextricably linked to chemistry.

In 1772 and 1778, he served as an associate professor and professor at the Paris Academy of Sciences. In the meantime, in 1768 he was elected as an “honorary academician” of the French Academy of Sciences. In 1775, he served as the director of the Royal Gunpowder Bureau. He established his own laboratory in the Gunpowder Bureau, which laid the foundation for the smooth progress of his experimental work.

The important contribution of Lavoisier is to overturn the wrong phlogiston. The phlogiston was proposed by the German Stall, and from the beginning, this doctrine has had a profound impact in Europe. At the time, some well-known chemists also embraced this doctrine.

But in 1772, when Lavoisier burned with weighed phosphorus and sulfur, it was found that the weight of the burned product was greater than the weight of phosphorus and sulfur before combustion, thus observing the oxidation phenomenon, The theory of oxidation of combustion. Lavoisier proved the law of mass conservation in chemical reactions by experiments, which is the first contribution of Lavoisier to chemical research. His second major contribution to chemistry research was the discovery of the principle of combustion, and the oxidation theory of Lavoisier completely overturned the phlogiston, which made the chemistry stagnate and began to flourish.

On September 5, 1777, Lavoisier submitted an epoch-making “Introduction to Combustion” to the French Academy of Sciences, systematically expounding the theory of oxidation of combustion. Chemistry thus enters the quantitative chemistry, the modern chemical period.

Lavoisier’s third major contribution to chemistry is to deny the four-element and three-elemental theories of ancient Greek philosophers. In the Chemical Summary, published in 1789, he divided the elements into four categories and listed the world’s first list of elements, listing all the chemical elements known at the time and the chemical elements. The exact name.

The work and achievements of Lavoisier laid an important foundation for the development of modern chemistry, so later generations called Lavoisier “the father of modern chemistry.” During the French Revolution, influenced by the “Left” trend of the Great Revolution, Lavoisier, who was the old tax collector of the government, was sentenced to death and was sent to the guillotine on May 8, 1794 at the age of 52.