Astronaut Marc Kelly was spent once a year International Space Station He also has a twin brother. NASA has used this opportunity to learn how to live in human space.
After three years of return, there is a test of his extended stay. NASA Twin Study's Dubbed is the most comprehensive integrated molecular, physiological and behavioral analysis of how human body is reflected in space.
The study included 84 scholars' work, part of 10 teams from 12 US universities in the United States. Each report examined the different aspects of the human body in space. The data included cognitive measurements, physiological data and sample of 27 months of Scott and his twins Earth, including blood, plasma, urine and chairs.
"Twins study was an important step to understanding epigenetics and gene expression in human space space," said James Polk, head of the health and medical service at NASA's headquarters. "Thanks to twin brothers and investigators who worked tirelessly, the valuable data collected as a result of twins research helped the need for personalized medicine and its role in studying the astronauts' health in a deep space, because NASA goes on the moon and traveling to Mars."
At its 342-day orbit, Scott became the first American to spend nearly a year in space. Although she found good health after testing, everything was fine.
According to the study, which was reported in the journal Science, Scott has made several changes. Among them were thin, dna damage of the carotid artery, gene expression changes, retinal nervous thickening, changes in bone microbes, cognitive abilities, and structural changes in chromosomes. In contrast to some of the reports that were reported last year, there were no DNA mutations.
The researchers also found that its immune system was basically just like you and me. Flu vaccine administration worked perfectly on earth. Researchers have also found that changes in the diversity of the diversity of space did not exceed the changes in stress related to scientists.
The length of the telemeir was one of the most striking. Telomeres is the protective "caps" of the ends of the chromosomes. And 91.3 percent of its gene expression returned to normal or baseline levels over six months after returning to Earth, it is now shorter than the 340-day mission. This may cause the problem as small TVs can put people at high risk of accelerated tension. It also increases the risk of diseases that comes with getting older such as cardiovascular disease and some cancers. This is the problem for those who need time to spend space (sun, someone?).
"For us Earthlings, it's quite similar," said Colorado State University professor Susan Bailey, who is studying telomeres. "We're all sorry to get older, and everyone wants to avoid cardiovascular disease and cancer." If we can understand what is happening in the length of the telomeres, we may slowly slow down ".
But over time, NASA says that there has been no long-term damage to Scott's health. However, this can not be true for those who spend time out of the Earth's gravitational field. Apart from the space spent, astronauts on Mars continue to exhibit continuous radiation.
"Our knowledge team teams conducted research into unprecedented human biology: molecular analysis of human cells and microbiology for human physiology," says Crete Kundrite, Director of Cosmology Life and Physical Science Research and Application Division at NASA HQ. "This paper is the first study of this integrated study that began at five years ago when the investigators first assembled, and we expect to publish further studies of additional analysis and future crew members because we continue to improve our space and work on the Moon and Mars."