New membranes for cellular recycling

New membranes for cellular recycling

Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) is an ideal model organism for autophagy research. Its fundamental cellular structure is similar to that of animal cells and is very easy to cultivate. Credit: MPI for Aging Biology

Spring cleaning is always in our cells: the cell's own processing system The autophagy fills the trash can with cellular waste, removes it into the recycling yard, and recovers decomposed material. Researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Biology in Cologne, Germany, have now been able to model yeast in a model organism showing that the garbage casing, known as an autophagosome, is a newly manufactured site around garbage, with no existing components built.

Self-renewal of cells through autophagy is a central process in the body. It also plays a role in age and many age-related diseases. The rule is: the more processing you do, the longer you will live. "If we can optimize autophagy machines, it can improve our health in old age, but we certainly need to understand exactly how this works," explains Martin Greff, a research leader at the Max Planck Institute.

So Maxim Schutter, a PhD student at the Martin Griffin Research Group, looked closely at how garbage bags are made. These so-called autophagosomes are composed of phospholipid membranes that form cellular debris around the body and are then transported for processing. Until now, it was always assumed that membranes already present in the cell assembled around debris. However, researchers have now shown that the membrane is newly formed at the site. To do this, the protein located on the membrane of autophagosomes activates fatty acids and assimilates them to produce phospholipids, which are then incorporated into the expanded membrane.

"This discovery is so fundamental that not only has autobiography changed at our discretion, but many new research approaches are being opened," explains Graef. For example, it is well known that cellular processing is impaired when the diet is rich in fats. "We may have to explain it. Once free fatty acids enter the membrane, changes in the composition of fats may directly affect the autophagy as a result of different diets. "

The new results show which proteins help the body to process naturally

More info:
Maximilian Schütter et al., Transfer of Local Fatty Acids to Phagolipid Synthesis Supplying Phagophoric Expansion in Autophagy, Cell (2019). DOI: 10.1016 / j.cell.2019.12.005

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New Membranes for Cellular Processing (2020, February 3)
Retrieved February 3, 2020

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