The HIV vaccine of the new Scripps research program increases the technical challenges that reinforce the previous anti-vaccine efforts and react strong anti-HIV antibodies to animal tests.
New vaccine strategy, described on paper on November 23 Science achievements, Based on HIV envelope protein, env. This complex, the shape of the shift molecule is very difficult to produce in vaccines, which promotes immunity to HIV infection.
However, Scripps scientists have discovered a simple, elegant method of stabilizing the ENV proteins in a variety of strains even in the HIV infection. Structured viruses similar to the virus created to create a complete virus, stable Env proteins have shown strong anti-HIV antibody responses to mice and rabbits. Based on this strategy, vaccines of the candidates are now being tested in monkeys.
"We see this new approach as a general solution of long-term problems for developing HIV vaccine," says Jiang Zhou, Associate Professor of the Scripps Research Interactive Structural and Computational Biology Department.
Copies of Envy to Study the HIV Infection Surface; Their main function is to absorb the host cells and stop the infection. Since Env performs this crucial role in the infection, and the viral structure of most exposure to immune system infected host, it was the main target of HIV vaccine efforts. The idea is that the whole Env protein or its subdivisions supporting the creation of endogenous antibodies in the hope that people will be able to prevent HIV infection from infecting HIV infections.
Of course, no HIV vaccine is effective with large-scale clinical trials. Many researchers believe that the HIV vaccine can work if it introduces the immune system of the venous proteins, the path closely resembles the ENV form in the real virus until it is infected. But the correct introduction of the ENV is a huge challenge.
On the HIV virus, Env protects three from viral membranes called trimers, and these complex structures take radically different forms before and after the cell infection. HIV vaccine researchers, despite years and tens of millions of dollars experimental, could not find a widely used method of stabilization Env trimers desired pre-infection shape.
"Trier-stabilizing solutions, which have been reported so far, have worked on several HIV-infected strains but have not been generalized," says Zahoo. "Env trimer & metatability & # 39; as we call it was really a central problem for Trimer based HIV vaccine design."
Zhu, as biophysicist, is a more general way out of the problem of Env stability, and in 2016 he and his Scripps Research colleagues said that the Env short-spring section could change HR1 may have been done by Env to remain pre-infected, "Shape.
In a new study, he and his team have shown that this strategy really works with the ENV trimmer from HIV strains spread across different parts of the world. This "uncertain prediction-optimized" (emo) approach, as it is called, serves as a stable in closed forms and can be effectively formed, with less need for cleaning, usually used in biotech production.
"Now in my laboratory we have created this modification in the language from 30 to 40 different types of strains, and in most cases it worked as a charm," says Zah.
He and his colleagues further optimize their vaccine strategy to genetically reduce their stabilized env trimers, up to 60 years of individual nanoparticles that mimic the globular shape of the entire virus. In this way the vaccine molecule, however, lack of viral replication with artificial and genetic material appears to be the immune system very similar to the genuine invasion of viruses and promotes strong reaction.
In the mice, Zau and his team discovered an invasive endo-nanoplacy vaccine for eight weeks, which were released to antibodies, which successfully neutralized laboratory tests against the naturally-occurring HIV tumor-type vaccines.
"This is the first time that the preparation of the HIV drug in the preparation of the HIV drug has been caused by the type of antibody reaction in the mouse," says Zahu. Similarly, the unprecedented results were made in rabbits and showed that the nanoparto-based approach is obviously more than the use of isolated linguistic proteins – it is stronger reacting and much faster.
The further tests are underway in 24 monkeys in San Antonio, the National Institute of the South-West National Center for Health, Texas.
Zhu and Scripps research licensed their HIV vaccine technology start-up company, LLC Ufovax, which finances current tests. "We are now testifying the two vaccines vaccines based on different types of HIV strains and the third vaccine that is a three-vaccine vaccine cocktail," says Ji Le, executive director of Ufovox. "We think this new approach is a real breakthrough after 30 years of HIV vaccine research."