Smoke from California fire It's hard to tell


No For the first time this year, California has been conducting masks this week to protect their lungs from harmful aviation particles that have been struck by a sick, stupid hall. Pollutants are hundreds of miles of disintegration to destroy three disruptive infernos, the largest of which is the Butte City camp fire that has made it the most dangerous and most destructive in state history. They will join more than 7,500 California fields that have spent over 1.7 million hectares of land this year, which is more than the fire season. The growing intensity of the California cracks The inhabitants of the golden state are interested: Is it more worse than fires?

This is a difficult question. On the one hand, data show that the fires in California burn down the fire and become more land than in the past. "If the intensity of strict use of pollution, whether it's a strong fire, more emissions will generate more smoke like smoke, yes yes, more smoke should be," says atmospheric composer Marc Printerton.

Copernic Atmospheric Monitoring Service Senior Research Fellow, Parrington tracks wildfires around the world to better understand their impact on pollution and public health. Most morning it is busy at 8 o'clock, downloading fire extinguishing data of the previous 24 hours from a supercomputer that operates by the European Center for Average Annual Weather Forecasts. Data thermal infrared radiation measurements of NASA's MODIS instrument, which will allow it to evaluate the intensity of fire all over the world; How much emission (eg, exacerbation of the lungs like aerosols and greenhouse gas emissions) are transmitted into the atmosphere; And how is this emission impacted on the global air quality? From his office to the west of London, it is stored in California's current fire than most. "You do not really expect the scale of emissions this year," said Parkington. "Even on a global scale, it really stands out."

Parrington also compares the daily emissions data to the measurements of what he knows that the current fires in California are shifting more to the atmosphere Than any of the November blazes record. In fact, in California wild fire Comes over emissions over the entire 16 years. "It's not just a fire fire, but a wild fire from summer," says Parkington. "Carr Fire, Mendocino Complex Fire-they & # 39; s Crushing." If the state discovered any major fires in December (2017), 2018 might be the highest radiation in California.

Still, the question is how smoke is much more complicated than many people will realize. This is because the smoke itself is quite difficult. For beginners it contains 40 different "pyrogenic species" Parrington, according to its analysis, which includes various forms of carbon and toxic aromatic compounds such as benzene and toluene. The relative and absolute number of these species may vary significantly, depending on conditions such as burns, wet or dry or burn in the past. "All this factor contributes to the fire extinguishing of smoke, how smoke and how the pollutant interaction is with each other," says Princeton.

To determine how much smoke is in the atmosphere, it is also caused by entering the lungs of people alone. Parrington claims that it is necessary to understand how smoke interacts with large-scale weather conditions such as winds, underground temperatures, air temperatures and cloud cover. Bay Area, for example, high pressure atmospheric systems tend to arise inversion layers that, as a lid on the surface of the pan, keep the smoky air close to the ground. Determining the air quality of the region not only the absolute number of smoke, but how many are the underground trails.

Photo by Sentinel Hub Processing by Pierre Marcus

There are also fuel sources that vary in different types of smoking variations. "The fact that fires are becoming a wild urban interface means that fires have new material," says Jayakas McCarthy, a geography of the University of Miami, which deals with fire-fighting pollution.

As for fuel, McCart says fire is an agnostic. If it's enough, he does not care if it's a tree, a house, or a car. But as a rule, exhaust emissions from beating are less acute than burned suburbs. "Woods is far from clean, but it's nothing more than a burning rubber that is a toxic toxic," says McCarthy. Hence, as people are built into deeper and deeper territories, the relevant question is not just Many Pollution is the formation of this fire, but what Kindness Pollution they are producing.

Answers to both answers, Parrington says, can be found in computer systems such as the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service, which can take many of these variables into account and synthesize data across multiple multiples of wildfire seasons. CAMS operates for only three years, but data collects are open to scientists all over the world who are more interested in wild smoke.

Responding to these questions to the residents of California is not enough. At the same time, stop any unnecessary air masks that are lying, do not tell when they need it again.


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