According to John Hopkins's medicine scientists, they have discovered what could be the oldest light sensory mechanism in modern mouse retina cells.
"Some evolutionary biologists have suggested that ancient organisms may have two light reaction mechanisms in one photoreceptor and through evolution, these two mechanisms are distributed in different cells, and our research seems to have sensitive mechanisms with modern mammals," says John Hopkins University Medicine Professor of neuroscience at the school Wai Yu, Dr. In their experiments, the report published in the teenagers was published on Oct. 18 CellScientists have stated that they have focused on light sensitive cells "No image forming" vision.
"When we think about the vision, we become like a picture of a person, but light has other effects like our pupils to brilliant light to limit their intensity while traveling on a plane during our fate," says Joe, who is also John Hopkin Wilmer's Eye Institute is a professor of ophthalmology.
Such a notion of formation of the image, Yu says, controls subgroup cells subdivision that live with many fates, most likely by all mammals, including humans. These cells, which are intensively called photosynthetic cells (IPRGCs), are photoeffective, more like familiar rods and cones, including five subtypes, M1 through M5.
To understand the hazardous paths that ipRGCs use light reaction, Yau and his colleagues have first seen anatomy of other photo experts.
Most of the top pedals have a similar tail called a cylinder or microprocessor. Photofeesters that use cylinder or cilia on the surface of the sport use cellular chemicals, the cyclic nucleotide light. Other photo effects that occur when using microvilli instead of the enzyme called phospholipase C light. Until now, the two ways did not turn out to be coexistent with one photoreceptor.
It turns out that ipRGC does not have cilia or microvilli, so scientists did not have anatomical vision through which they react light. But in the studies published by Yau's team in 2011, they found that the m1 subtype of ipRGC uses phospholipase C way.
For the ongoing works, YU and its team were focused on the M2 and M4 subdivisions of the IPRGC subdivisions to determine if they were used the same biochemical path as M1 cells.
To this end, John Hopkins, scientists, genetically modified mice to remove molecular components on phospholipase c. If M2 and M4 cells also use phospholipase C, the highway disruption prevents the light of the reaction of cells.
Although scientists have committed phospholipase C, the M4 cells still respond to light without reducing the size of the reaction, and the M2 cells replaced more than half as controlling mice. So M2 cells appear to be partially in the way of phospholipase C, but M4 cells can hardly use it.
"This gave us alternative ways of finding ways to be used in cells," says Jean Gigan, a research worker at Ergos Laboratory.
In their search, according to Ian's data, they found one biochemical path involved with HCN channels, which, when disrupted, completely blocked the light reaction in M4 cells and partially blocked it into M2 cells. Thus, M2 cells were used as phospholipase C and newly-revealed HCN channels, and M4 cells were mainly using HCN path.
HCN channels that are investigated for hyperpollarization by active and cyclic nucleotides can also be found in mammary cardiac cells that affect nausea.
Observing that M2 cells use two biochemical paths in response to light in response to light, researchers pointed out that the initiative initiated by evolutionary biologists is the earliest photoelectric may contain both mechanisms in both cells.
Yu says that this phenomenon is likely to be in human retinas.