Last month FDA Approved Essemaine, Ketamin's Nose Spray Version, for Resistant Depression of Treatment. Now you know that Ketamin is a party drug, but in fact it begins to use a wider use of the World Health Organization's universal medication. Scientists have a good idea about how it brings its anesthetic charms after interacting with some receptor brains. But when it comes to the antidepressant effects of ketamine, the researchers are still too dark.
But here it is a little light. Today Science, The researchers noted that ketamine looks in the brain's brains. When the first time a stress hormone is created for the effect of depression, the rodents have lost dense spots, small prostheses that support the signals of neurons. But when the dose with ketamine 12 hours later, May began to be half of this spine. Strangely, researchers observed the behavior changes almost 9 hours later early They saw a flourish regression. Study can not afford 100% of the effects of ketamine antidepressant, but this may lead to more effective treatment of cats.
First of all, we need to talk about how researchers could picture the microscopic structures in the live mouse brain. The answer, of course, is the prisons and lasers. They were specifically aimed at the region, which was called Prefront Cortex, which can be seen on the left. The researchers implanted the pillow on one side of the mind, and in the midst of the laser, the light shines pisism, whose hypotenuse was anomaly silver and hit the other side of the brain. The implantation procedure was certainly damaged by a brain prism, but left a page that wanted the image to be vulnerable.
Now, the laser laser in the normal mouse brain is not going to do something good, and the researchers have been using the genetically advanced kidney fluorescent protein during their neurons. "When infrared laser light comes with a microscope, these cells activate yellow fluorescent proteins," says Veil Cornell, Conor Lindon, neuroscientist and psychiatrist at the Institute of Family Brain and Mental Studies at the Medicine Branch. "This fluorescence signal returned to the microscope on the same optical path."
Thus, Lincoln and his colleagues can get the image of neurons and their pillows that you can see above. Basic is the mouse brain acting normally. The following is a corticosterone or CORT administration, a stressed hormone that results in the adrenal gland response in response to stressful experiences. "It promotes plasticity, contributes to vanity, it will help to learn some kind of memory and memory," it says. "But the likelihood of hormonal elevation is probably not good."
Now, look at the post-katamine image at the bottom of this graphic above, and you can see the dead printed spines. Strange bits, however, are that the researchers have observed changes in the behavior of mice containing the foam when they are on the back. "What we said was contrary to our initial expectations," says Liston. "Formation of these new ribs in the case of these neurons may not be necessary for the behavioral effect, because the behavioral effect has come".
That makes us considerable research in this study: mice are not people. Their brains are not nearly as complicated, and this is especially true of the brain region intentionally of this research, prefrontal cortex. And mice do not have anywhere near our behavioral complexity.
"It's important here that the mouse recognizes that there is no depression," says Yelie psychiatrist Alex Cuen, who studied the effects of ketamine in the mouse's brain. "It's only chronic stress and this is a model for that Depression and not really a model of Georgia Depression. "In fact, depression goes beyond neurons, which implies your genes and chemistry in your brain and your environment.
But what researchers can do to pick out behaviors that indicate the mouse is chronically stressed. They lose the taste of sweet water, for example. "It may look like what happens in some people who are depressed who lose their taste for food," says Linton.
Another important acute note is that these researchers have not developed a complete understanding of how Ketamine creates a brain. Just as depression is a product of a conspiratorial factor, ketamine works with a number of biochemical indicators on structural aspects of the brain.
For example, you can see the brain neurotransmitter glutamate in the brain after getting ketamine. "It's like it's a matter of involving brain regions, but it can be two ways," says Yelen psychiatrist Gerard Senacora, who studies Ketamine. "One is really just to turn to stimulation, predominantly this massive release is glutamate, but then actually creates these new connections that keep circuits online."
Ketamin might be able to exploit the brain plastics – this is your nervous system, not static. Thus, these new outcomes provide potential revenue to increase the efficiency of ketamine, with antidepressant effects of which are only on average per week.
"It shows that the establishment of these new connections is important to support the anti-depressant effect of ketamine, but not as much as we expect," – reads the list. "It is not necessary for them to be acute, but it is necessary Maintenance In their long-term perspective. "Such insight can help psychiatrists who treat therapeutic effects as there are simple ways to develop neurons in the human brain." We know that the teaching helps the birth of new neurons that facilitate new connections. And it is therefore unimaginable that something is so simple that this effect can be useful for achieving this effect. "
More and more researchers learn how Ketamine works on the brain, closely examines its crystals and ignores its undesirable effects – in particular the experiences that make it popular for the popular party, but it's a complicated therapy. "We are looking for a ketamine mechanism, which can result in the development of more targeted therapy, which will have the same therapeutic benefits but without the unwanted effect," said Dr Gould, a neuropharmacologist at the University of Maryland Medical Medicine, studying ketamine.
Why all the trouble? Because 30 to 40 percent of patients who are treated for depression do not receive adequate treatment like the USSR. Even when they do eventually, the effect is slower to build-troubled who really struggles at the moment. "Existing medications in a week or not for months to use full effect," says Gold. "Ketamin is doing it in hours or days". But it does not work for everyone.
In Ketamin, a psychiatry finds a powerful tool that is still intact. There is nothing but a little bit of lights, lasers and mouse brains.
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