According to a new report from researchers at the University of California at San Francisco and the University of California at Berkeley, Zika virus can infect many of the human placenta and amniotic sac The cell type and how Zika virus spread from pregnant women to her fetus. They also identified a drug that might stop it.
According to a study published on July 18, 2016 in Cell Hosts and Microorganisms, there are two possible ways in which the virus can spread to developing fetuses: Route 1 is transmitted through placenta in early pregnancy. Route 2 is transmitted through the amniotic sac in the second trimester. A study of human tissue in the laboratory found that an older generation of antibiotics known as Duramycin is thought to block viral replication in cells that need to pass through both pathways.
“There are few viruses that can spread to the fetus during pregnancy and cause birth defects,” said Dr. Lenore Pereira, professor of virology, cell and tissue biology at the University of California, San Francisco School of Dentistry. “Understanding how certain viruses are able to do this is a very important issue and may be the most important question of how to protect the fetus when the mother is infected.”
Duramycin is produced by the bacteria itself. Antibiotics used to fight off other bacteria. It is widely used in animals and is in the clinical trial stage for the treatment of patients with cystic fibrosis. Recent studies have shown that it is effective in cell culture experiments against dengue fever and West Nile virus. They are the same yellow virus as the Zika virus or the same as the Ebola virus.
“Our paper shows that Duramycin is effective in preventing the infection of many types of placental cells and intact human placental tissue. The Zika virus used in this experiment is derived from the recent outbreak in Latin America. The isolated virus. Zika virus in pregnancy in Latin America is associated with thief malformations and other congenital birth defects,” said Dr. Eva Harris, professor of infectious diseases and vaccinology at the University of California, Berkeley School of Public Health. “This suggests that Duramycin or a similar drug can effectively reduce or prevent the Zika virus in the mother from spreading to the fetus through these two possible pathways, thereby preventing related birth defects.”
In separation When the cells and intact tissue explants are examined, Zika virus can infect several different placental cells. These cells include cell types within the placenta and in the outer membrane of the placenta. Scientists have found that amniotic epithelial cells around the fetus are particularly susceptible to Zika virus infection.
“This suggests that these cells play a significant role in the transmission of the virus to the fetus and support the hypothesis that the virus can spread through these membranes, independent of the placenta, especially in the second and third trimesters. “The most serious birth defects associated with Zika virus infection, such as microcephaly, seem to be most likely to occur in pregnant women during the first trimester and the second trimester, but even if the pregnant woman is infected with the virus later in pregnancy, the fetus remains There may be a series of subtle but still serious birth defects.
Zika virus also uses other receptors, including Axl and TYRO3, which can be found in various placental cells. However, researchers It was found that only TIM1 is highly and consistently expressed in various placental cells throughout pregnancy.
TIM1 binds to phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), one of which is present on the Zika virus envelope. Membrane lipids are also present on dengue, West Nile and Ebola viruses. Duramycin, a small molecule composed of 19 amino acids, binds to the PE of the viral envelope and, through this combination, The virus can be blocked from entering the cell via the TIM1 receptor.
Studies have found that Duramycin blocks all of the placenta and membrane types tested by the virus, including trophoblasts and amniotic epithelial cells. Fluffy explants. More importantly, relatively low concentrations of drugs can substantially block infection.