Burned toast and dinosaur bones are common, according to a new study by Yale. Both contain chemicals, which, under appropriate conditions, transform the original proteins into something new. It is a process that will help the researchers understand how cells of soft tissues inside the dinosaur bones survive for hundreds of millions of years.
Yale, American Museum of Natural History, University of Brussels and Bonn University published a study. Nature Communications.
Among the researchers, the fossil fabric of dinosaur bones is quite controversial. Solid cloths, such as bones, eggs, teeth and enamel scales, are well known for being dazzling. Soft tissues, such as blood vessels, cells and nerves – are stored in hard tissue, are more delicate and are quickly eroded after death. These soft tissues consist mainly of proteins that are completely destroyed in 4 million years.
Nevertheless, dinosaur bones are older, about 100 million years old, and sometimes preserve organic structures like cells and blood vessels. Various attempts to solve this paradox were not able to answer.
"We decided to challenge the protein encouragement," said Yelie paleontologist Jasmina Wiemann, the lead author of the research. "We examined about 35 samples of fossil bones, eggs and teeth to maintain proteinic soft tissues to discover their chemical composition and determine what conditions they could save for millions of years."
The researchers found that soft tissues are kept in samples from oxidative environments such as sandstone and shallow, marine limestone. The soft tissues have been replaced by advanced glycosylations and lipoxide end products (AGEs and ALE), which are resistant to degradation resistance. They are also structurally comparable to chemical compounds that stain the dark bark on toast.
Age and ALE are characterized by a floral color in which the bone and teeth are bones. The compounds are hydrophobic, which means that they are resistant to the normal effects of water and have the properties that are bacterial.
Wiemann and his colleagues made their discovery made of decalcifying fossils and the depiction of released soft tissue structures. They addressed Raman microspectroscopy – not the destructive method of analysis as inorganic and organic content sample – extracted fossil soft tissues. In this process, laser energy is directed to tissue, which causes molecular vibration, which are the chemical substances of spectral fingerprints.
Co-author Derek Briggs, Yale Glee Evel Hachinson, professor of geology and geophysics and California's Natural History Museum, says research in areas where soft tissue can be found in minerals, including dunes, dune sands and shallow marine limestone.
"Our results show how the chemical changes the fossilization of these soft tissues and determines the type of environment in which the process occurs," Briggs said. "This payout is an exercise parameters in the way in which it will be presumably likely to be an important source of expansion of evidence of biology and ecology of ancient spine."
Additional co-authors are Matteo Fabri Yale, Martin Sander and Zou-Ruyy Young, Bonnie, Cohen Steyn, Brussels University and Mark Norelli from the history of the American Museum.
Materials provided Yale University. The original written by Jim Shelton. Note: Edit content for style and length.