What are the common infectious diseases? How to prevent common infectious diseases?

Influenza is a self-limiting disease that usually lasts for a week and has a good prognosis. However, people’s resistance during the flu period has decreased, and the chances of infection by other pathogens have increased greatly. They are prone to serious diseases such as pneumonia, myocarditis, and meningitis. The main treatment of influenza is “symptomatic treatment”, that is, taking drugs that can alleviate symptoms, such as cough medicine, antipyretic drugs, nasal congestion and runny nose drugs.

What are the common infectious diseases? How to prevent common infectious diseases?

Influenza

After the flu, it is an acute respiratory infection caused by the flu virus, and the population is generally susceptible. Influenza viruses are classified into three types: A, B, and C. Among them, type A has the strongest antigen variability and often causes a worldwide pandemic; type B is weaker and can cause moderate or local outbreaks; type C is more antigenic. It is relatively stable and causes sporadic cases in infants and adults.

The source of the flu infection is flu patients and latent infections, mainly through airborne droplets and daily contact.

The flu incubation period is short, usually 1-3 days. The patient’s main manifestations are fever, and the patient’s body temperature is mostly above 39 °C, generally lasting 3 to 4 days. At the same time, it may be accompanied by salivation, nasal congestion, cough, sore throat, headache, general malaise. Some patients may have gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and watery stool.

Influenza is a self-limiting disease with a general course of disease of about a week and a good prognosis. However, during the flu period, people’s resistance decreased, and the chances of infection by other pathogenic bacteria increased greatly. They were complicated by serious diseases such as pneumonia, myocarditis, and meningitis. The main treatment of influenza is “symptomatic treatment”, that is, taking drugs that can alleviate symptoms, such as cough medicine, antipyretic drugs, nasal congestion and runny nose drugs. Rest more, drink more water, increase the body’s ability to resist viruses. Pay attention to ventilation, adjust the indoor humidity, wash the sun and be smashed, and use sunlight, vinegar and other methods to reduce the virus infection.

Influenza patients avoid going to public places. Abstaining bad habits, smoking and drinking can also destroy resistance.

Waterpox

An acute infectious disease caused by chickenpox-zoster virus. Mainly in children. The varicella virus is present in the respiratory tract of early patients, mainly through saliva droplets, and can also be infected by contact with the patient’s clothing, toys, utensils, and the like. Chickenpox is highly contagious and must be isolated early until all rashes are scarred. Injection of varicella vaccine before the end of the season is an effective preventive measure.

Vulgaris is mainly manifested on the skin, and skin mucous membranes appear in batches with rashes, papules, herpes and crusting, accompanied by fever. Generally, it is contagious from the day before the rash to five days after the rash or five days after the rash or until the rash is crusted and dried. The incubation period of this disease is about 2-3 weeks.

The patient may have mild fever, general malaise, loss of appetite, cough or mild diarrhea at the beginning, often without attention. At the same time of fever, or after 1-2 days of fever, the rash begins. The rash first appears on the trunk, the head, gradually extends to the face, and finally reaches the limbs. The rapid development of rash is one of the characteristics of this disease. The rash starts from rash → papule → blister → scarring, the short is about 6-8 hours, the blister is slightly elliptical, the size is different, superficial, floating on the surface, Often accompanied by itching, the patient is restless. In general, within 1-3 days, herpes starts to dry and crusted from the center. After a few days, the lid peels off by itself, leaving no scar after shedding.

The symptoms of varicella in adults are more serious than those in children. The symptoms are high fever and persistent, the systemic symptoms are severe, the rash is merged into pieces, and the complications are easy to see such as hepatitis and pneumonia.

Patients should stay in bed during the fever period, giving a high-calorie, digestible diet and plenty of water. Trim the children’s nails, prevent the water sores from being scratched, change clothes frequently, keep the skin clean and hygienic, and expose the children’s clothing to the sunburn or boil.

Weather rash

A common acute respiratory infection caused by the rubella virus. It is characterized by low fever and generalized rash, often accompanied by swelling of the occipital lymph nodes. The incubation period is 12-19 days.

People with rash usually develop rash on 1-2 days after fever. It is first seen on the cheeks. It quickly spreads over the trunk and limbs within 1 day, but there is often no rash in the palms and soles. The rash is a reddish or red maculopapular rash that resolves in 2-3 days. The systemic symptoms were mild, and only a few cases had swollen lymph nodes and splenomegaly.

People with rash should stay in bed during the fever, drink plenty of water, and eat with a diet. Pregnant women (especially in early pregnancy) should avoid contact with rubella patients, because rubella has a greater impact on pregnant women, infection with rubella in early pregnancy can lead to stillbirth, premature birth and serious birth defects. Unmarried young people can get immunity by injecting rubella vaccine.

Mumps

An acute respiratory infection caused by mumps virus. It is mainly transmitted through the cornice, and a small number is indirectly transmitted through utensils. The virus invades the body from the respiratory tract, causing swelling of the parotid gland or submandibular gland. Often popular in kindergartens and elementary schools.

The incubation period of this disease is about 14-25 days. Most of the onset is more urgent, with symptoms of general malaise such as fever, chills, headache, sore throat. The patient first felt that the parotid gland was swollen and painful on one side of the ear, and it was more painful when chewing. After 2-3 days, the other side of the parotid gland was also swollen and painful. The mass was centered on the earlobe and the margin was unclear. The surface is hot, and there is elasticity and tenderness when the hand is pressed. 4-5 days gradually subsided. A small number of patients sometimes have swelling and pain in the submandibular glands and sublingual glands. Atypical cases can always be swollen without parotid gland, but with simple meningitis and testicular inflammation, a small number of young women can have ovarian inflammation.

Children should stay in bed, eat a liquid or semi-liquid diet, avoid eating sour drinks to avoid pain, pay attention to oral hygiene. Isolation of the patient in time until the parotid gland is swollen. Injecting the “Mahjung” vaccine before the epidemic season to improve immunity can help prevent mumps.